Reports and Publications

Papers that summarize research by CBE and affiliated institutions have appeared in numerous journals, trade magazines, and conference proceedings.

Many of CBE's research reports are publicly available in PDF format. All contents copyright (c) The Regents of the University of California, unless otherwise noted, and may not be reproduced without written authorization.

Searchable database of CBE papers

Additional papers on topics related to CBE research are available on the eScholarship Repository, an initiative of the California Digital Library.

A complete list of CBE publications can be found on the Center for the Built Environment Research Publication & Reports List. Revised June 2014.

Indoor Environmental Quality Research

We include here papers on post occupancy evaluation (POE), thermal comfort, acoustics, and other IEQ topics. Additional papers on IEQ research are available from the eScholarship Repository.

Arens, E. 2007. Assessment of Indoor Environments. Proceedings, Roomvent 2007--10th International Conference on Air Distribution in Buildings, Helsinki, 13-15 June.

Indoor Environmental Quality > Acoustics

Salter, C. and T.R. Lawrence, 2012. Acoustical Performance Measurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings. CBE Summary Report, January.

Salter, C. and R. Waldeck, 2006. Designing Acoustically Successful Work Places: A Case Study Assessment of the Speech Privacy and Sound Isolation of Spaces Having Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. CBE Summary Report, April.

Jensen, K., and E. Arens, 2005. Acoustic Quality in Office Workstations, as Assessed by Occupant Surveys. Proceedings, Indoor Air 2005, Sept. 4-9, Beijing, China.

Salter, C., K. Powell, D. Begault, and R. Alvarado, 2003. Case Studies of a Method for Predicting Speech Privacy in the Contemporary Workplace. CBE Summary Report, January. (2MB)

Indoor Environmental Quality > Occupant Satisfaction Surveys and POEs

Brager, G. and L. Baker, 2009. Occupant Satisfaction in Mixed-Mode Buildings. Building Research and Information, 37(4): 369-380.

Brager, G. and L. Baker, 2008. Occupant Satisfaction in Mixed-Mode Buildings, Proceedings, Air Conditioning and the Low Carbon Cooling Challenge, Windsor, UK, July.

Abbaszadeh, S., L. Zagreus, D. Lehrer and C. Huizenga, 2006. Occupant Satisfaction with Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Buildings. Proceedings, Healthy Buildings 2006, Vol. III, 365-370, Lisbon, Portugal, June.

Huizenga, C., S. Abbaszadeh, L. Zagreus and E. Arens, 2006. Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings. Results of a Large Indoor Environmental Quality Survey. Proceedings, Healthy Buildings 2006, Vol. III, 393-397, Lisbon, Portugal, June.

Heerwagen, J. and L. Zagreus, 2005. The Human Factors of Sustainability: A Post Occupancy Evaluation of the Philip Merrill Environmental Center. Summary Report for U.S. Department of Energy, Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, April.

Zagreus, L., Huizenga, C., E. Arens and D. Lehrer, 2004. Listening to the Occupants: A Web-based Indoor Environmental Quality Survey. Indoor Air 2004; 14 (Suppl. 8): pp. 65-74. December. This is also available online from the publisher. View on-line.

Huizenga, C., L. Zagreus, E. Arens and D. Lehrer, 2003. Measuring Indoor Environmental Quality: A Web-based Occupant Satisfaction Survey.Proceedings, Greenbuild 2003, Pittsburgh PA, November.

Huizenga, C., K. Laeser, and E. Arens, 2002. A Web-Based Occupant Satisfaction Survey for Benchmarking Building Quality. Proceedings, Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June.

Indoor Environmental Quality > Personal Environmental Controls

Zhang, H., E. Arens, D. Kim, E. Buchberger, F. Bauman, and C. Huizenga, 2010. Comfort, perceived air quality, and work performance in a low-power task-ambient conditioning system. Building and Environment, 45(1), pp. 29-39.

Hoyt, T., H. L. Kwang, H. Zhang, E. Arens, and T. Webster, 2009. Energy savings from extended air temperature setpoints and reductions in room air mixing. International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Boston, July.

Zhang, H., D. Kim, E. Arens, E. Buchberger, F. Bauman, and C. Huizenga, 2008. Comfort, Perceived Air Quality, and Work Performance in a Low-Power Task-Ambient Conditioning System, CBE Summary Report, April. 45 pp

Bauman, F., 1999. Giving Occupants What They Want: Guidelines for Implementing Personal Environmental Control in Your Building. Proceedings, World Workplace 1999, Los Angeles, October.

Bauman, F., A. Baughman, G. Carter, and E. Arens, 1998. A field study of PEM (Personal Environmental Module) performance in Bank of America's San Francisco office buildings. CEDR-01-07.

Arens, E., T. Xu, K. Miura, H. Zhang, M. Fountain, and F. Bauman, 1998. A Study of Occupant Cooling by Personally Controlled Air Movement. (external link) Energy and Buildings, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 45-59.

Bauman, F., and E. Arens, 1996. Task/Ambient Conditioning Systems: Engineering and Application Guidelines. Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, October.  (2 MB)

Indoor Environmental Quality > Productivity

Federspiel, C., G. Liu, M. Lahiff, D. Faulkner, D. Dibartolomeo, W. Fisk, P. Price, and D. Sullivan, 2002. Worker Performance and Ventilation: Analyses of Individual Data for Call-Center Workers. Proceedings, Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June.

Fisk, W., P. Price, D. Faulkner, D. Sullivan, D. Dibartolomeo, C. Federspiel, G. Liu, and M. Lahiff, 2002. Productivity And Ventilation Rate: Analyses of Time-Series Data for a Group of Call-Center Workers Proceedings, Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June. (49K) This collaborative study was primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Indoor Environmental Quality > Thermal Comfort

Various, 2012. ASHRAE 55 References. Online reference.

Arens, E., H. Zhang, and C.Huizenga, 2006. Partial- and Whole-body Thermal Sensation and Comfort, Part I: Uniform Environmental Conditions. Journal of Thermal Biology, 31, 53 - 59.

Arens, E., H. Zhang, and C.Huizenga, 2006. Partial- and Whole-body Thermal Sensation and Comfort, Part II: Non-uniform Environmental Conditions. Journal of Thermal Biology, 31, 60 - 66.

Zhang, H., C. Huizenga, E. Arens, T. Yu, 2005. Modeling Thermal Comfort in Stratified Environments. Proceedings, Indoor Air 2005: 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Beijing, China, September.

Olesen, B. W. and G.S. Brager, 2004. A Better Way to Predict Comfort: The New ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. ASHRAE Journal, August.

Huizenga, C., H. Zhang, E. Arens, and D. Wang, 2004. Skin and Core Temperature Response to Partial- and Whole-Body Heating and Cooling, Journal of Thermal Biology Vol. 29 (2004) pp. 549-558.

de Dear, R. and G. Brager, 2002. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings. Energy and Buildings, 34: 549-561.

Zhang, H., E. Arens, and C. Arens, 2002. Using a Driving Game to Increase the Realism of Laboratory Studies of Automobile Passenger Thermal Comfort. SAE Technical Paper Series 2003-01-2710, 7 pp.

Martin, R. M., C. Federspiel, and D. Auslander, 2002. Responding to Thermal Sensation Complaints in Buildings. ASHRAE Transactions, 108(1), pp. 407-412, January.

Brager, G.S., and R.J. de Dear, 2001. Climate, Comfort & Natural Ventilation: A new adaptive comfort standard for ASHRAE Standard 55. Proceedings, Moving Thermal Comfort Standards into the 21st Century, Windsor, UK, April 2001.

de Dear, R. and G. Brager, 2001. The adaptive model of thermal and energy conservation in the built environment. International Journal of Biometeorology, 45 (2): 100-108.

de Dear, R. and G. Brager, 1998. Developing an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference. ASHRAE Transactions, 104 (1): 145-167.

Baughman, A., and E. Arens. 1996. Indoor Humidity and Human Health - Part I: Literature Review of Health Effects of Humidity-Influenced Indoor Pollutants. ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 102, Pt. 1, pp. 193-211.

Arens, E., and A. Baughman. 1996. Indoor Humidity and Human Health - Part II: Buildings and their Systems. ASHRAE Transactions Vol. 102, Pt. 1, pp. 212-221

Fountain, M., E. Arens, R. de Dear, F. Bauman, and K. Miura. 1994. Locally Controlled Air Movement Preferred in Warm Isothermal Environments. ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 100, Pt. 2, 14 pp.

HVAC System Research

We include here papers on UFAD, ventilation, task/ambient systems, and other HVAC system topics. Additional papers on HVAC research are available from the eScholarship Repository.

Roberson, Judy A., 2004. Effect of Building Airtightness and Fan Size on the Performance of Mechanical Ventilation Systems in New U.S. Houses: A Critique of ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003. Master's Thesis, Dept. of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley. (9MB)

Lin, C., C. Federspiel, and D. Auslander, 2002. Multi-Sensor Single-Actuator Control of HVAC Systems. International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Richardson, TX, October.

Wang, D. E., Arens, T. Webster, and M. Shi, 2002. How the Number and Placement of Sensors Controlling Room Air Distribution Systems Affect Energy Use and Comfort. International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Richardson, TX, October.

HVAC Systems > Advanced Integrated Systems

Bauman, F., T. Webster, D. Dickerhoff, S. Schiavon, D. Feng and C. Basu, 2011. Case Study Report: David Brower Center, Internal Report, excerpted from Report to California Energy Commission (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, April.

HVAC Systems > Radiant Systems

Schiavon, S., F. Bauman, B. Tully, and J. Rimmer, 2011. Room Air Stratification in Combined Chilled Ceiling and Displacement Ventilation Systems. HVAC&R Research Journal.

Raftery, P., K.H. Lee, T. Webster, and F. Bauman, 2010. Analysis of Hybrid UFAD and Radiant Hydronic Slab HVAC System. Proceedings of ICAE 2010, Singapore, April.

Wang, Z., H. Zhang, D. Lehrer, E. Arens, C. Huizenga, T. Yu, and S. Hoffmann, 2009. Modeling Thermal Comfort with Radiant Floors and Ceilings. 4th International Building Physics Conference, Istanbul, June.

Moore, T. 2008. Simulation of Radiant Cooling Performance with Evaporative Cooling Sources, Summary Report, October. Executive Summary

Weeks, K., D. Lehrer and J. Bean, 2007. A Model Success: The Carnegie Institute for Global Ecology, Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, May.

Moore, T., F. Bauman and C. Huizenga, 2006. Radiant Cooling Research Scoping Study. CBE Internal Report, April

HVAC Systems > Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)

Bauman, F., S. Schiavon, T. Webster, and K.H. Lee, 2010. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems, ASHRAE Journal. September.

Schiavon, S., F. Bauman, K.H. Lee, and T. Webster, 2010. Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution systems.  Final Report to CEC PIER Program.  CEC Contract No. 500-06-049, July.

Schiavon, S., K.H. Lee, F. Bauman, T. Webster, 2010. Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) systems. Energy and Buildings, Vol, 27, No. 2-3, pp. 517-528.

Schiavon, S., K.H. Lee, F. Bauman, and T. Webster, 2010. Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings. Energy and Buildings, 42(8), 1182-1191. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.02.009.

Webster, T., F. Bauman, D. Dickerhoff and Y. Lee. 2008. Case Study of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters Building. Report for U.S. General Services Administration, September.

Bauman, F., T. Webster, and D. Dickerhoff, 2008. Air Leakage Test Report EPA Region 8 Headquarters, Denver, Colorado. CBE Summary Report, August.

Bauman, F., T. Webster, and C. Benedek, 2007. Cooling Airflow Design Calculations for UFAD, ASHRAE Journal, pp. 36-44, October.

Webster, T., C. Benedek, and F. Bauman, 2006. Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cost Study: Analysis of First Cost Tradeoffs in UFAD Systems. Report to U.S. General Services Administration, September.

Bauman, F., T. Webster, and H. Jin, 2006. Design Guidelines for Underfloor Plenums. HPAC Engineering, 78(7), July.

Webster, T., and F. Bauman, 2006. Design Guidelines for Stratification in Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Systems. HPAC Engineering, 78(6), June.

Jung, A., and M. Zeller, 2005. Analysis and Testing of Methods to Determine Indoor Air Quality and Air Change Effectiveness. Original technical paper from Rheinisch-Westfälische Technical University of Aachen, Germany, 1994. English translation by Wolfgang Lukaschek, Center for the Built Environment (CBE). Executive Summary by Fred Bauman, PE, Center for the Built Environment (CBE), October.

Hogan, M., T. Webster, and F. Bauman. 2005. Trends in Design and Operation of UFAD Buildings. CBE Summary Report, October.

Webster, T., E. Arens, F. Bauman, H. Jin, and C. Huizenga, 2005. Mobile Wireless Building Evaluation Toolkit, Research Overview, Berkeley, CA. October. (PDF)

Lehrer, D. and F. Bauman, 2003. Hype vs. Reality: New Research Findings on Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. Proceedings, Greenbuild 2003, Pittsburgh PA, November.

Webster, T., F. Bauman, J. Reese and M. Shi, 2002. Thermal Stratification Performance of Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Systems. Proceedings, Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June.

Webster, T., F. Bauman, and J. Reese, 2002. Underfloor Air Distribution: Thermal Stratification. ASHRAE Journal, May.

Webster, T., R. Bannon and D. Lehrer, 2002. Teledesic Broadband Center Field Study. CBE Summary Report, April.

Bauman, F., and T. Webster, 2001. Outlook for Underfloor Air Distribution. ASHRAE Journal, June.

Webster, T., F. Bauman and E. Ring, 2000. Supply Fan Energy Use in Pressurized Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. CBE Summary Report, October.

Bauman, F., T. Webster and P. Pecora, 1999. How Low Can You Go? Air Flow Performance of Low-Height Underfloor Plenums. CBE Summary Report, October.

Envelope Systems, Natural Ventilation, and Mixed-Mode

We include here papers on facade research, mixed-mode buildings, operable windows, and natural ventilation. Additional papers on envelope research are available from the eScholarship Repository.

Ackerly, K. and G. Brager, 2013. Window Signaling Systems: Control Strategies and Occupant Behavior. Building Research & Information, 41 (3): 342-360.

Brager, G. and M. Pigman, 2013. Adaptive Comfort in Mixed-Mode Buildings: Research Support Facility, National Renewable Energy Lab. CBE Internal Report, April.

Ackerly, K., G. Brager, and E. Arens, 2012. Data Collection Methods for Assessing Adaptive Comfort in Mixed-Mode Buildings and Personal Comfort Systems, CBE Summary Report, October.

Ackerly, K. and G. Brager, 2012. Human Behavior Meets Building Intelligence: How Occupants Respond to “Open Window” Signals. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.

Ackerly, K. and G. Brager, 2012. Window Signaling Systems: Control Strategies and Occupant Behavior. Proceedings, The changing context of comfort in an unpredictable world, Windsor, UK, April 2012.

Ackerly, K.,and G. Brager, 2011. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems,
CBE Summary Report, April. Appendix C: Mixed-mode Signal Case Study Summary.

Ackerly, K., L. Baker, and G. Brager, 2011. Window Use in Mixed-mode Buildings: A Literature Review.
CBE Summary Report, April.

Borgeson, S. and Brager, G., 2011. Comfort standards and variations in exceedance for mixed-mode buildings. Building Research and Information, 39(2): 118-132.

Zelenay, K., M. Perepelitza and D.Lehrer, 2011. High-Performance Facades: Design Strategies and Applications in North America and Northern Europe. California Energy Commission. Publication number: CEC-500-99-013.

Brager, G. and L. Baker, 2009. Occupant Satisfaction in Mixed-Mode Buildings. Building Research and Information, 37(4): 369-380.

Borgeson, S.,  and G. Brager, 2008. Occupant Control of Windows: Accounting for Human Behavior in Building Simulation. CBE Internal Report, October.

Brager, G. and L. Baker, 2008. Occupant Satisfaction in Mixed-Mode Buildings, Proceedings, Air Conditioning and the Low Carbon Cooling Challenge, Windsor, UK, July.

Brager, G., S. Borgeson, and Y. Lee, 2007. Control Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings. CBE Summary Report, October.

Brager, G. 2006. Mixed-Mode Cooling. ASHRAE Journal, pp. 30-37. August. (Link to eRepository)

Huizenga, C., H. Zhang, P. Mattelaer, T. Yu, E. Arens, and P. Lyons, 2006. Window Performance for Human Thermal Comfort. Final Report to the National Fenestration Rating Council, Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, February.

Inkarojrit, V., 2005. Balancing Comfort: Occupants' Control of Window Blinds in Private Offices. PhD dissertation, Dept. of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley. (8MB)

Brager, G.S., G. Paliaga, and R. de Dear, 2004. Operable Windows, Personal Control and Occupant Comfort. ASHRAE Transactions, 110 (2), June.

Brager, G., and R.J. de Dear, 2000. A Standard for Natural Ventilation. ASHRAE Journal, October.

Brager, G., E. Ring, and K. Powell, 2000. Mixed-mode Ventilation: HVAC Meets Mother Nature. Engineered Systems, May, pp. 60-70.

Arens, E., and N. Watanabe, et. al. 1986. Natural Ventilative Cooling of Buildings. Department of the Navy Design Manual 11.02, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, December. 146 pp (2 MB)

Building Controls and Information Technology

We include here papers on control systems, wireless applications in buildings, demand response, and building management systems. Additional papers on controls research are available from the eScholarship Repository.

Lehrer, D., and J. Vasudev, 2011. Evaluating a Social Media Application for Sustainability in the Workplace, Extended abstract, Proceedings, CHI 2011, Vancouver, May. 6 pp

Lehrer, D., and J. Vasudev, 2010. Visualizing Information to Improve Building Performance: A Study of Expert Users. Proceedings, ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, August 15-20. 10 pp.

Lehrer, D., 2009. Research Scoping Report: Visualizing Information in Commercial Buildings. Interim Report to the California Energy Commission (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER), September.

Arens, E., et.al, 2007. Demand Response Enabling Technology Development, Phase II Report from the Thermostat/Controls Group, December 2005 – December 2007. Report to CEC Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, December.

Lee, K., J. Braun, S. Fredrickson, K. Konis, and E. Arens, 2007.  Testing of Peak Demand-limiting Using Thermal Mass at a Small Commercial Building.  Demand Response Research Center Report, LBNL, July, 38pp.

Brown, C., 2007. Multizone Register Controlled Residential Heating: Optimized for Energy Use and Comfort. Master's Thesis, Dept. of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley.

Do, A., W. Burke, D. Auslander, R. White, and P. Wright, 2007. Technical Review of Residential Programmable Communication Thermostat Implementation for Title 24-2008. Draft Report Version 0.1, Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, November.

Xu, P., P. Haves, M.A. Piette and L. Zagreus, 2006. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings: Field Tests, Simulations and Audits. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory publication no. LBNL-58815. January (external link to abstract)

Arens, E., et. al. 2006. Demand Response Enabling Technology Development, Phase I Report: June 2003-November 2005, Overview and Reports from the Four Project Groups. Report to CEC Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley. April. (7 MB)

Federspiel, C., R. Martin, and H. Yan, 2003. Thermal Comfort Models and Complaint Frequencies. CBE Summary Report, April. (0.8 MB)

Federspiel, C. and L. Villafana, 2003. Design of an Energy and Maintenance System User Interface for Building Occupants. ASHRAE Transactions, 109(2), pp. 665-676.

Federspiel, C. and L. Villafana, 2003. Design of a Maintenance and Operations Recommender. ASHRAE Transactions, 109(2), pp. 677-683.

Sharma, A., 2003. Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for Building Management Systems. Master's Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley.

Lin, C., C. Federspiel, and D. Auslander, 2002. Multi-Sensor Single-Actuator Control of HVAC Systems. International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Richardson, TX, October.

Wang, D. E., Arens, T. Webster, and M. Shi, 2002. How the Number and Placement of Sensors Controlling Room Air Distribution Systems Affect Energy Use and Comfort. International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Richardson, TX, October.

Sustainability, Whole Building Energy, and Other Topics

We include here papers on general energy and sustainability topics. Additional papers are available from the eScholarship Repository.

Goins, J., et. al., 2010. Case Study of Kresge Foundation Office Complex, Troy Michigan, Executive Summary. CBE Summary Report, August.

Weeks, K., D. Lehrer and J. Bean, 2007. A Model Success: The Carnegie Institute for Global Ecology. Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, May.

Federspiel, C., Q. Zhang, and E. Arens, 2002. Model-Based Benchmarking with Application to Laboratory Buildings. Energy and Buildings, 34(3), pp. 203-214.

Lehrer, D., 2001. Building a Case for Building Performance. Line Online, AIA San Francisco Chapter, August.

Murray, S., and K. Powell, 1999. Office Tenant Needs Study.  CBE Summary Report, October.

Federspiel, C. C., Q. Zhang, and E.Arens, 1999. Laboratory Field Studies/Performance Feedback. Final Report to California Institute for Energy Efficiency, December. (1.5MB)