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Bibliography

The following list of papers, articles and Web references represents major contributions to the understanding and development of UFAD technology and design.

1. Addison, M., and D. Nall. 2001. "Cooling via underfloor air distribution: Current design issues and analysis options." From: Cooling Frontiers: The Advanced Edge of Cooling Research and Applications in the Built Environment. College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Arizona State University.

2. AEC. 2000. Design Brief: Underfloor air distribution and access floors. Energy Design Resources website, www.energydesignresources.com. Architectural Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO. This design brief is an introduction to underfloor air and access floor systems, and addresses the following topics: displacement ventilation and hybrid underfloor systems, energy savings and indoor air quality improvement, access floor system design and construction, economics of combined underfloor air and access floor systems, comfort and productivity issues and applications of underfloor air and access floor systems.

3. Akimoto, T., T. Nobe, and Y. Takebayashi. 1995. Experimental study on the floor-supply displacement ventilation system. ASHRAE Transactions, 101(2).

4. Akimoto, T., Nobe, T., Tanabe, S., and Kimura, K. 1996. "Experimental study on indoor thermal environment and air quality of the floor-supply displacement ventilation system." Proceedings, Indoor Air 1996.

5. Architectural Institute of Japan. 1993. Proceedings, Symposium on Floor-Based Air Supply HVAC Systems. Tokyo, October 1 (in Japanese). Useful for its brief outline of a wide range of subjects contained within nine presentations on floor-based systems; covering general energy conservation, indoor conditions, design and operation fundamentals and specific examples of different installations.

6. ArchitectureWeek. 2000. "Building for 'Harmony with nature'." ArchitectureWeek, June 14, http://www.architectureweek.com/2000/0614/building_1-1.html.

7. Arens, E.A., F. Bauman, L. Johnston, and H. Zhang. 1991. "Testing of localized ventilation systems in a new controlled environment chamber." Indoor Air, No. 3, pp. 263-281.

8. Arens, E.A., and F.S. Bauman. 1994. "Improving the performance of task conditioning systems." Proceedings, International Symposium: Issues on Task-Ambient Conditioning. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 11 January, pp. 77-94.

9. Arens, E., M. Fountain, T. Xu, K. Miura, H. Zhang, and F. Bauman. 1995. "A study of occupant cooling by two types of personally controlled air movement." Proceedings, Pan Pacific Symposium on Building and Urban Environmental Conditioning in Asia. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 16-18 March. This paper presents controlled environment chamber experiments, using human subjects, on the effectiveness of air movement cooling. Primarily relevant to residences, the findings are useful in addressing the design of TAC systems. The desirable air velocities chosen by participants were evaluated with reference to existing comfort standards, and used to propose a comfort zone for personally controlled air movement.

10. Argon Corporation. 2002. Product information. Argon Corporation, Naples, FL, www.argonair.com.

11. Arnold, D. 1990. "Raised floor air distribution -- a case study." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Pt. 2. Early case study on a building from design stage through to construction highlights problem areas such as the construction and sealing of underfloor plenums. Other issues include how to conceal extract ducts in a building without ceiling voids, co-ordination of the floor services installation and finishes, and optimum supply air temperatures.

12. ASHRAE. 1990. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 113-1990, "Method of testing for room air diffusion." Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

13. ASHRAE. 1992. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, "Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy." Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

14. ASHRAE. 1993. Air-Conditioning Systems Design Manual. Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.

15. ASHRAE. 1996. ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996: The HVAC Commissioning Process. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

16. ASHRAE. 1997. ASHRAE Standard 129-1997, "Measuring air change effectiveness." Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

17. ASHRAE. 1999. HVAC Applications volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.

18. ASHRAE. 1999. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1999, "Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality." Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

19. ASHRAE. 2000. HVAC Systems and Equipment volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.

20. ASHRAE. 2001. Fundamentals volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.

21. ASHRAE. 2001. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-2001, "Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality." Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

22. ASHRAE. 2002. Refrigeration volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.

23. ASTM. 2000. ASTM E779-99: Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization. American Society for Testing and Material, Philadelphia, PA.

24. Barker, C.T. 1985. "Ensuring insurers work in comfort." Chartered Mechanical Engineer, November.

25. Barker, C.T., G. Anthony, R. Waters, A. McGregor, and M. Harrold. 1987. "Lloyd's of London." Air Conditioning: Impact on the Built Environment. New York: Nichols Publishing Company. A comprehensive study of one of the earliest buildings to use an underfloor plenum as a services zone. Discussion ranges from the technical, e.g. thermal performance of the slab, to the conceptual -e.g. the architecture of air-conditioning.

26. Barnaby, C., Dean, E., Fuller, F., Nall, D., Shelley, T., Wexler, T., 1980. "Utilizing the thermal mass of structural systems in buildings for energy conservation and peak power reduction." Shelley, Dean and Fuller, Architects, Berkeley Solar Group. A comprehensive report on structural systems and their energy- and power-savings benefit within the context of two North American climates. The report covers three areas: (1) building sub-systems related to structural cooling; (2) thermal performance of a prototypical building comprising the optimum sub-systems; (3) estimated cost and life-cycle cost analysis for the prototype building.

27. Bauman, F.S., L. Johnston, H. Zhang, and E. Arens. 1991a. "Performance testing of a floor-based, occupant-controlled office ventilation system." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 97, Pt. 1. Presents the results of experiments in a controlled chamber configured to resemble an office with modular partitions, investigating the effects of supply volume, location, and direction, supply/return temperature difference, heat load density and workstation size and layout. Using ASHRAE test methods current in 1991, overhead supply systems scored a higher performance rating. This paper concludes the comfort benefits of occupant-control over the local environment are not adequately addressed in existing performance and comfort standards.

28. Bauman, F.S., K. Heinemeier, H. Zhang, A. Sharag-Eldin, E. Arens, W. Fisk, D. Faulkner, D. Pih, P. McNeel, and D. Sullivan. 1991b. "Localized thermal distribution for office buildings; final report-phase I." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, June, 81 pp.

29. Bauman, F.S., G. Brager, E. Arens, A. Baughman, H. Zhang, D. Faulkner, W. Fisk, and D. Sullivan. 1992. "Localized thermal distribution for office buildings; final report-phase II." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, December, 220 pp. This report presents the results of research in five key areas: (1) Survey of industry perspective on Task Conditioning systems; (2) Laboratory Experiments; (3) Recommendations to Improve Localized Thermal Distribution System Performance; (4) Whole Building Energy Simulations; and (5) Building Standards and Codes.

30. Bauman, F.S., and M. McClintock. 1993. "A study of occupant comfort and workstation performance in PG&E's advanced office systems testbed." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, May, 135 pp.

31. Bauman, F.S., H. Zhang, E. Arens, and C. Benton. 1993. "Localized comfort control with a desktop task conditioning system: laboratory and field measurements." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Pt. 2. This paper presents the results of both laboratory and field measurements investigating the thermal performance of desktop task conditioning systems. Interesting for its consideration of the thermal conditions resulting from a range nozzle sizes.

32. Bauman, F., E. Arens, M. Fountain, C. Huizenga, K. Miura, T. Xu, T. Akimoto, H. Zhang, D. Faulkner, W. Fisk, and T. Borgers. 1994. "Localized thermal distribution for office buildings; final report - phase III." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, July, 115 pp. This report presents the results of research completed during phase III of the localized thermal distribution (LTD) project, covering three task areas: (1) Whole-building Energy Simulations; (2) Field Studies; and (3) LTD Engineering Applications Guide Outline. Includes comprehensive field studies on two buildings, located in Phoenix, Arizona and San Ramon California.

33. Bauman, F.S., E.A. Arens, S. Tanabe, H. Zhang, and A. Baharlo. 1995. "Testing and optimizing the performance of a floor-based task conditioning system." Energy and Buildings, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 173-186. A comprehensive report of controlled environment chamber experiments studying the thermal performance of a floor-based TAC system. Discussion includes a summary of research to date, use of the latest thermal manikin model, analysis involving the effect of supply volume, grille direction and Archimedes number of air supply jets, and concise design recommendations for improving TAC system performance.

34. Bauman, F., editor. 1995. "Proceedings: Workshop on task/ambient conditioning systems in commercial buildings, San Francisco, CA, 4-5 May 1995." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, October. A collection of literature from contributors to this workshop. A broad range of industry interests are represented, from manufacturers to commercial and academic research organizations.

35. Bauman, F., and Akimoto, T. 1996. "Field study of a desktop task conditioning system in PG&E's advanced office systems testbed." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley.

36. Bauman, F.S. 1996. "Task/ambient conditioning systems: engineering and application guidelines." Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Energy and Environment: Towards the year 2000. Capri, Italy, 1996. A concise, informative introduction to the concept of TAC systems in buildings. Provides a system description, and addresses issues such as benefits, and how to achieve them, limitations (real and perceived) and technology demands.

37. Bauman, F.S., and E.A. Arens. 1996. "Task/ambient conditioning systems: engineering and application guidelines." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley. A comprehensive report on TAC, expanding on information in the previous paper (see above reference), including detailed discussions on issues such as system configurations, components and mechanisms, room air distribution, relevant standards and codes, energy use, design and construction guidelines and system costs.

38. Bauman, F.S., T.G. Carter, A.V. Baughman, and E.A. Arens. 1998. "Field study of the impact of a desktop task/ambient conditioning system in office buildings." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 104 (1), pp. 125-142. This paper presents field measurements, including subjective surveys and physical monitoring, carried out in three office buildings in San Francisco. The study is useful for its range of comparative units of analyses, measurements were taken in the buildings before and after installation of the TAC systems; included a control group of workers without TAC units; and follow-up tests performed three months later were repeated under three different room temperature conditions.

39. Bauman, F., P. Pecora, and T. Webster. 1999a. "How low can you go? Air flow performance of low-height underfloor plenums." Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, October. This comprehensive report summarizes results from full-scale testing of pressurized underfloor plenum configurations and their influence on the uniform distribution of supply air to floor grilles. Useful technical recommendations are cited such as minimum plenum heights, the effect of obstructions or removing floor panels, and plenum inlet conditions.

40. Bauman, F., K. Tsuzuki, H. Zhang, T. Stockwell, C. Huizenga, E. Arens, and A. Smart. 1999b. "Experimental Comparison of Three Individual Control Devices: Thermal Manikin Tests." Final Report. Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley.

41. Bauman, F. 1999. "Giving occupants what they want: guidelines for implementing personal environmental control in your building." Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, April. Concise description of the principles of an underfloor TAC system, potential benefits, guidelines on how to achieve them and ongoing work addressing current barriers (real and perceived) to widespread use of the technology. Incorporates recent research findings and outlines areas for future study.

42. Bauman, F., K. Powell, R. Bannon, A. Lee, and T. Webster. 2000-a. Underfloor air technology website: www.cbe.berkeley.edu/underfloorair. Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, December.

43. Bauman, F., V. Inkarojrit, and H. Zhang. 2000-b. "Laboratory test of the Argon personal air-conditioning system (APACS)." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, April.

44. Bauman, F., and T. Webster. 2001. "Outlook for Underfloor Air Distribution." ASHRAE Journal, June, pp.18-25. This paper first offers a system description, discusses the benefits of underfloor technology, and then lists and discusses the "technology needs" or the current barriers to its widespread adoption.

45. Beck, P. 1993. "Intelligent design passes IQ test." Consulting-Specifying Engineer, January. Case study of the West Bend Mutual Insurance Company Headquarters, Wisconsin, detailing the pressurized underfloor HVAC system and environmentally-responsive work station control modules. Emphasizes the benefits of integrated system design, and relationships between improved staff productivity and a more comfortable work environment.

46. Brager, G.S., M.E. Fountain, C.C. Benton, E.A. Arens, and F.S. Bauman. 1993. "A comparison of methods for assessing thermal sensation and acceptability in the field." Proceedings, Thermal Comfort: Past, Present and Future, ed. Nigel Oseland. British Research Establishment, Watford, United Kingdom, 9-10 June.

47. Brager, G.S., and R.J. de Dear. 1998. "Thermal adaptation in the built environment: A literature review." Energy and Buildings, 27, pp. 83-96.

48. Brager, G.S., and R.J. de Dear. 2000. "A standard for natural ventilation." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 42, No. 10, October, pp. 21-28.

49. Brill, M., and S. Margulis. 1984. "Using office design to increase productivity." Buffalo, NY: Buffalo Organization for Social and Technological Innovation.

50. Brown, M. and Scott, L. 2000. "Underfloor Air Conditioning Systems - Principles and Applications." Carrier Global Engineering Conference, May 2000, June. Focusing on description and analysis of commercial systems employing turbulent mixed flow outlets and displacement, this paper includes case studies for applications such as an airport terminal, aquatic center, university auditorium, trading floors within high-rise office buildings and a casino.

51. Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) International and the ULI-the Urban Land Institute. 1999. What office tenants want: 1999 BOMA/ULI office tenant survey report. Washington, D.C.: BOMA International and the ULI-the Urban Land Institute. This paper presents a survey of 1829 office tenants in the U.S. and Canada. In the survey, the office tenants were asked to rate the importance of 53 building features and amenities, and to report how satisfied they are with their current office space for those same categories.

52. California Energy Commission. 2001. Nonresidential Manual for Compliance with California's 2001 Energy Efficiency Standards. Publication Number: P400-01-005, California Energy Commission.

53. CBE. 2002. Center for the Built Environment website: www.cbe.berkeley.edu. Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley.

54. Cho, S.H., Kim, W.T., Na, K.T., Chung, K.S., 1998. "Experimental study on thermal characteristics of personal environment module (PEM) system." Proceedings, Second International Conference on Human-Environment System, Yokohama 1998. This paper presents the results of experiments, carried out in a test chamber, comparing the thermal performance of PEM and underfloor systems. The relative performance of each system is considered in 3 zones -above, below and around the desk area- concluding the PEM provides a more advantageous overall thermal environment, improving as flow rate increases. The effect of heat generated by the system motor is also addressed.

55. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 1999. "Guidelines for Creating High Performance Green Buildings." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. This study looks at green systems (including site, enclosure, mechanical, interiors and materials) as well as the "green design and construction process." It includes 12 case studies.

56. Cornell University. 1999. "Case study: 901 Cherry - Gap Headquarters." http://dea.human.cornell.edu/Ecotecture/Case%20Studies/Gap/gap_home.htm. Ecotecture site, Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

57. Crockett, J. 2002. "Undervalued? Underfloor air systems have been around for quite some time not, but is the market embracing the technology or discounting it as a specialty solution?" Consulting-Specifying Engineer, January. This article looks at the current status of Underfloor systems in the marketplace. Crockett discusses reasons why Underfloor is still not commonly used, some of its benefits, and available web resources.

58. Croome, D.J., and D. Rollason. 1988. "Freshness, ventilation and temperature in offices." Proceedings of CIB Conference Healthy Buildings 88, 5-8 September, Stockholm.

59. Daly, A. 2002. "Underfloor air distribution: Lessons learned." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 44, No. 5, May, pp. 21-24. Presents three strategies for capturing as many benefits of underfloor air distribution as possible while keeping the initial cost to a minimum: minimize the ductwork in the plenum, prevent plenum leakage, and don't oversize airflows.

60. Dasher, C., A. Potter, and K. Stum. 2002. "Commissioning to meet green expectations." Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. website: www.peci.org.

61. David, J. 1984. "Under floor air conditioning." Journal of the Chartered Institution of Building Services, August.

62. de Dear, R., and G.S. Brager. 1998. "Developing an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 104 (1). Under the hypothesis that contextual factors and past thermal history modify building occupants' thermal expectations and preferences, a worldwide thermal comfort database was compiled examining thermal sensation, acceptability and preference from observations in 160 buildings. The results formed the basis of a proposal for a variable indoor temperature standard.

63. Drake, P., P. Mill, and M. Demeter. 1991. "Implications of user-based environmental control systems: three case studies." Proceedings, ASHRAE Indoor Air Quality Conference. Presents the results of surveys, on the occupants of three buildings with underfloor systems allowing user-controls, in order to argue the case for designers, owners and managers considering a broader range of user-responsive systems.

64. Drake, P., P. Mill, Hartkopf, V., Loftness, V., Dubin, F., Zigara, G., Posner, J. 1991. "Strategies for health promotion through user-based environmental control: a select international perspective." Proceedings, ASHRAE Indoor Air Quality Conference.

65. Ellison, J., and B. Ramsey. 1989. "Access flooring: comfort and convenience can be cost-justified." Building Design & Construction, April.

66. Energy Design Resources. 2000. "Underfloor air distribution offers energy efficiency and much more!" eNews for Designers, Issue 18, October 27, www.energydesignresources.com.

67. Engineering Interface Limited, 1993. "Personal control and 100% outside-air ventilation for office buildings." Report prepared for Efficiency and Alternative Energy Technology Branch, CANMET, Canada.

68. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, and D.P. Sullivan. 1993. "Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with desktop ventilation." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Pt. 2.

69. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, and D.P. Sullivan. 1995. "Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with floor-based task ventilation: results of additional experiments." Building and Environment, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 323-332. This laboratory study on the determinants of indoor air flow patterns with a floor-based task ventilation system discusses relationships between average age of air, the supply-air's piston-like flow pattern and height. Experimental variables include intra-room transport of tobacco smoke particles (produced mechanically), supply-air flow rate, temperature, direction and internal heat loads; measured using a tracer gas procedure.

70. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, D.P. Sullivan, and D.P. Wyon. 1999 "Ventilation efficiencies of desk-mounted task/ambient conditioning systems." Indoor Air, No. 9, pp. 273-281. Outlines required outdoor air content, supply airflow rate and direction for optimum values of air exchange effectiveness and pollution removal efficiency in the breathing zone of heated manikins with desk-mounted air outlets.

71. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, D.P. Sullivan, and S.M. Lee. 2002. "Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system." Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, 30 June - 5 July 2002.

72. Federspiel, C.C., G. Liu, M. Lahiff, D. Faulkner, D. Dibartolomeo, W.J. Fisk, P. Price, and D. Sullivan. 2002. "Indoor environmental effects on work performance." Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June 30 - July 5.

73. Fisk, W.J., D. Faulkner, D. Pih, P. McNeel, F. Bauman, and E. Arens. 1991. "Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with task ventilation." Indoor Air, No. 3, pp. 247-262.

74. Fisk, W.J. and Faulkner, D. 1992. "Air exchange effectiveness in office buildings: Measurement techniques and results." Proceedings, 1992 International Symposium on Room Air Convection and Ventilation Effectiveness, July 22-24, Tokyo, pp. 213-223, published by ASHRAE, Atlanta.

75. Fisk, W.J., Faulkner, D., Sullivan, D., and Bauman, F. 1997. "Air change effectiveness and pollutant removal efficiency during adverse mixing conditions." Indoor Air 7: 55-63.

76. Fisk, W. J. 2000. "Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency." LBNL-45484, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, July 31.

77. Fisk, W.J., P. Price, D. Faulkner, D. Sullivan, D. Dibartolomeo, C. Federspiel, G. Liu, and M. Lahiff. 2002. "Productivity and ventilation rate: Analyses of time-series data for a group of call center workers." Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June 30 - July 5.

78. Fountain, M.E., and E.A. Arens. 1993. "Air movement and thermal comfort." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 35, No. 8, August, pp. 26-30.

79. Fountain, M.E. 1993. "Locally controlled air movement preferred in warm environments." Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley, November, 196 pp. This research dissertation focuses on air movement at ambient and cooler-than-ambient temperatures, examining the transition between desirable cooling and uncomfortable draft and proposing a percent of satisfied people model as a function of air movement in warm conditions. Experiments include the use of a thermal manikin exposed to a range of air velocities from floor- and desk-mounted air diffusers; and human subjects exposed to the same conditions but given control of the air supply velocity.

80. Fountain, M., E. Arens, R. de Dear, F. Bauman, and K. Miura. 1994. "Locally controlled air movement preferred in warm isothermal environments." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 100, Pt. 2, 14 pp. A condensed version of the previous dissertation.

81. Fujita, H., and Sakai, K. 1996. "Room air temperature profiles in underfloor air distribution system." Proceedings, Indoor Air 1996. The proposed model for estimating room air temperature profiles and flow patterns indicates the significant relationship between heat- and temperature-profiles, and the need for accurate measurements of heat loads.

82. Fukao, H., Oguro, M., Hiwatashi, K., Ichihara, M. 1996. "Environment evaluation in an office with floor-based air-conditioning system in an office building." Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan. Presents the results of field measurements and a survey questionnaire concerning the thermal environment in an office building employing both floor- and ceiling-based systems. Significant differences were observed only for air particle concentrations. Includes a graphical analysis of thermal sensations over different parts of the human body.

83. Fukao, H., M. Oguro, M. Ichihara, and S. Tanabe. 2002. "Comparison of underfloor versus overhead air distribution systems in an office building." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 108, No. 1.

84. Genter, R.E. 1989. "Air distribution for raised floor offices." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 95, Pt. 2.

85. Greenheck. 2002. Product information. Greenheck, Schofield, WI, www.greenheck.com.

86. GSA. 1992. "GSA access floor study." U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C., E.B. Commission No. 7211-911C, September 10. This report presents a detailed 25 year Present Value Analysis, and study, of the use of access floor systems in GSA office facilities with the aim of determining the best value for open plan offices. Useful and comprehensive for comparative means -in addition to studying three different access floor systems, the analysis considers both steel and concrete framed building structures.

87. Guttmann, S. 2000. "Raising the bar, with raised floors." Consulting-Specifying Engineer, October.

88. Hanzawa, H., and Y. Nagasawa. 1990. "Thermal comfort with underfloor air-conditioning systems." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Pt. 2. Presents the results of experiments, carried out in a test chamber with human occupants, measuring the subjective perception of supply air flow from a floor outlet. Conclusions of a low draft risk with underfloor air systems are based on the draft charts of Fanger et al (1988).

89. Hanzawa, H., Nagasawa, Y., and Mortyama, T., 1993 "Field measurements of thermal comfort in occupied zones of buildings installed with under-floor air-conditioning systems." Proceedings, Room Air Convection and Ventilation Effectiveness, ASHRAE 1993. From field measurements of 2 office buildings with underfloor air conditioning systems, looking at room air temperatures, air velocities and responses to questionnaires on air movement and drafts, this paper concludes that internal conditions are comfortable according to standard thermal indexes.

90. Hanzawa, H., and M. Higuchi. 1996. "Air flow distribution in a low-height underfloor air distribution plenum of an air conditioning system." AIJ Journal Technological Design, No.3, pp 200-205, December. This paper presents the results of experiments with scale models of underfloor plenums, investigating the characteristics, observed problems, and possible countermeasures, of air flow within low height plenums. Experimental parameters included varying air supply inlet number and type, obstacles and guide vanes within the plenum. In conclusion, low height pressurized plenums are found to be feasible within an optimum range of floor area per outlet ratio.

91. Harris, L., and Associates. 1989. Office environment index 1989. Grand Rapids, MI: Steelcase, Inc.

92. Hartman, T. 1993. "New zone controls help achieve total environmental quality." Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning, Nov. 1993.

93. Hasegawa, K., 1991. "Installation example of the personal air conditioning in USA - Johnson Controls Inc.'s office" Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991

94. Hawataik Han, Kwang-Seop Chung, Kyung-Jin Jang 1999. "Thermal and ventilation characteristics in a room with underfloor air-conditioning system" Proceedings, Indoor Air '99, Edinburgh, Scotland. Outlines the results of testing in a conference room with underfloor air-conditioning, including measurements of horizontal and vertical room air temperature distributions, CO2 concentrations and infra-red imaging of temperature distributions over a person standing on a floor-based supply outlet.

95. Hedge, A., A. Michael, and S. Parmelee. 1992. "Reactions of facilities managers and office workers to underfloor task air ventilation." Journal of Architectural Planning and Research. This paper presents results from field study surveys of user reaction to underfloor systems as compared to overhead ventilation in their previous workplaces, the 1st survey of this kind in the USA. Results are presented with consideration of human factors and ergonomics and discussion as to why occupants control is often voted a primary benefit, yet rarely exercised.

96. Heinemeier, K.E., G. E. Schiller, and C.C. Benton. 1990. "Task conditioning for the workplace: issues and challenges." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Pt. 2.

97. Heinemeier, K.E., G. Brager, C. Benton, F. Bauman, and E. Arens. 1991. "Task/ambient conditioning systems in open-plan offices: assessment of a new technology." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, September. Early commentary on the level of knowledge regarding task/ambient conditioning and identification of specific issues needing further research at the start of the 90s. The detailed analysis of system principles, strategies and the affect of task/ambient systems on comfort and energy use, remains relevant to present day applications.

98. HGA. 2002. "ADC World Headquarters & Technology Campus." Hammel, Green and Abrahamson, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

99. Hibiya Sogo Setsubi Corporation, 1993. "Floor-based air supply HVAC system design manual." Design Manual 1993

100. Hisaki, H., S. Kanno, Y. Kayahara, M. Mizuno, Y. Nakamura, M. Okubo, and K. Ueda. 1991. "Installation example of a radiant personal air conditioning system for automated offices - Kobe harborland area." SHASE Journal, Special Edition: Personal Air Conditioning, Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan. Early case study on the application of an underfloor system with both floor- and partition-mounted diffusers.

101. Hockman, R. 2002. Personal communication. Tate Access Floors, Inc., Jessup, MD.

102. Hosni, M.H., B.W. Jones, and H. Xu. 1999. "Experimental results for heat gain and radiant/convective split from equipment in buildings." ASHRAE Transactions, 105 (1).

103. Houghton, D. 1995. "Turning air conditioning on its head: underfloor air distribution offers flexibility, comfort, and efficiency." E Source Tech Update TU-95-8, E Source, Inc., Boulder, CO, August, 16 pp. A good general summary of underfloor air distribution systems, providing an objective overview of the technology -both the benefits and potential drawbacks, including advice on how to avoid them, are presented. Sections include an outline of different system types, economic appraisal, market trends, products and manufacturers, all well illustrated with graphics and photographs.

104. IFMA. 1997. Benchmark III. International Facility Management Association, Houston, TX.

105. Imagawa, N. and T. Mima. 1991. "Installation example of an all air system: Fujita headquarters building." SHASE Journal, Special Edition: Personal Air Conditioning, Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan (in Japanese).

106. Int-Hout, D. 1998. "Air distribution for comfort and IAQ." HPAC Engineering, March, pp. 59-70.

107. Int-Hout, D. 2001. "Pressurized Plenum Access Floor - Design Manual." Carrier, November. An overview of issues and design considerations, this manual includes history, basic concepts, advantages of the system, design considerations, design challenges, a summary of current research and the Carrier approach.

108. ISO. 1994. International Standard 7730. "Moderate thermal environments -- Determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfort." Geneva: International Standards Organization.

109. Ito, H., Nakahara, N. "Simplified calculation model of room air temperature profile in underfloor air-conditioning system." Proceedings, Room Air Convection and Ventilation Effectiveness, ASHRAE 1993. Using this simplified calculation model a close correlation between calculated and measured vertical temperature distributions indicated a level of accuracy suitable for use in HVAC design applications and that variations in room dimensions have little influence on room air temperature profiles.

110. Iwamoto, S., 1999 "A study on numerical prediction method of indoor environment including human body." Proceedings, International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '99 The author compares two numerical methods of calculating a three-dimensional model of air flow and temperature around an occupants body, based on a curvilinear coordinate system. The detailed predictions possible with such models are necessary when evaluating personal (task-ambient) conditioning installations.

111. Johnson Controls. 2002. Product information. Johnson Controls, Milwaukee, WI, www.jci.com.

112. Kaczmarczyk, J., Q. Zeng, A. Melikov, and P.O. Fanger. 2002. "Individual control and people's preferences in an experiment with a personalized ventilation system." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8-11 September 2002.

113. Karvonen, A. 2001. "The revolution is underfoot." Environmental Design and Construction, January/February. An overview of underfloor air systems, this article presents its history, system mechanics, benefits, barriers, and resources for a less specialized audience in the building industry.

114. Kight, D. 1992. "Epson flexes its technological muscles." Facilities Design and Management, February. General case study on Epson's corporate headquarters building in Torrance, California, at its time one of the largest applications of an underfloor air distribution system in America. Includes a description of the access floor and task air modules.

115. Kim, I.G., Homma, H. 1992. "Possibility for increasing ventilation efficiency with upward ventilation." ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin. Vol. 8, No. 2. The results of experiments comparing upward and downward ventilation systems, in an office-like test space with human occupants, indicate changes in room CO2 content are less affected by upward then downward ventilation. This paper also concludes ventilation rates for removing occupant produced contaminants in the breathing zone can be low providing supply air temperatures are less than room air temperatures.

116. Kim, I.G., Homma, H. 1992 "Distribution and ventilation efficiency of CO2 produced by occupants in upward and downward ventilated rooms." ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2. This paper expands on the results of the previous experiments by the authors (see reference above) to include a more detailed analysis of factor influencing efficient removal of CO2 content from a room such as occupant produced metabolic heat, and CO2 concentration stratification.

117. Kim, Y., K. Lee, and H. Cho. 2001. "Experimental Study of Flow Characteristics of a Diffuser for Under Floor Air-Conditioning System." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol 107, Pt. 1. In this study a new diffuser for the underfloor air conditioning system is developed and flow characteristics for isothermal conditions are studied. The new diffuser consists of two sections-an internal section for generating swirl flow and an edge section for vertical flow. The study concludes that the new diffuser has desirable characteristics.

118. Kohyama, M., Mizuno, M., Nakamura, Y., Sekimoto, Y., Akagi, K., Kunimatsu, Y., Otaka, K. 1996. "Field measurements of the indoor environment of an office with a task-ambient air conditioning system." Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan. Evaluation of a computer center equipped with conventional ceiling outlets in ambient areas, occupant controlled floor outlets in task areas. Outlines differences in room air temperatures between the two zones and the need to consider varying occupant activity levels of workers when setting task area temperatures.

119. Konishi, H., Hanzawa, H., Higuchi, M., 1996. "Study on occupied zone air conditioning system using seats." Proceedings 5th International conference on air distribution in rooms, ROOMVENT 1996. A study of the characteristics of air flow velocities and temperature distributions around the human body using typical auditorium/theater seats fed with supply air from below the seat. Of interest for highlighting alternative applications of personal conditioning underfloor air supply systems.

120. Krepchin, I. 2001. "Underfloor air systems gain foothold in North America." E Source Report. ER-01-1, Boulder, CO: Financial Times Energy, Inc., January. Presents market information. Report includes sections with headings, "The Market Expands," "Why is the Market Growing?", "What Challenges Remain?" as well as an appendix of manufacturers and buildings using underfloor air.

121. Kroll, K. 2001. "Customer Driven Real Estate: Fisher Properties wants to find better ways to serve tenants' need for speed and flexibility. One step is to let them leave on 30 days notice." Building Operating Management, May. Underfloor Air Distribution is cited as a way in which buildings can be flexible to accommodate different tenants.

122. Kroner, W. J. Stark-Martin, and T Willemain. 1992. "Using advanced office technology to increase productivity: the impact of environmentally responsive workstations (ERWs) on productivity and worker attitude." The Center for Architectural Research, Rensselaer, Troy, NY. An in-depth case study on the ERWs with individualised controls, installed in the new West Bend Mutual Insurance Headquarters, Wisconsin. Useful as a reference for its range of subjective assessment and measurement techniques, and means of internal validation.

123. Kwang-Seop Chung, Hwa-Taik Han, Chang-Geun Cho, Sung-Hoon Kong, Min-Kwan Cho, 1999. "A study on the characteristics of indoor environment and comfort in office building with underfloor air-conditioning (UFAC) system. Proceedings, Indoor Air '99, Edinburgh, Scotland. Physical measurements indicated noise levels from floor terminal units served by a fan powered air supply are overcome by typical background office noise, and recorded contaminant levels are cited as much lower than those for a conventional ceiling supply system as measured by another research team.

124. Ky-Bum Jeong and Jong-Jin Kim, 1999. "Individual air distribution control system on partition panel at personal task area". Proceedings, Indoor Air '99, Edinburgh, Scotland. This paper investigates the optimum location of outlets for occupant comfort within a personal task area, concluding that location is the most critical factor in improving supply air efficiency.

125. Lee, H., and F. Bauman. In press. "Development of an Air Leakage Test Methodology for Underfloor Plenums." To be submitted to ASHRAE Transactions.

126. Levy, H. 2002. "Individual Control by Individual VAV." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8-11 September 2002. This paper presents a study on "sensible cooling" through varying air velocity (VAV) through personal air outlets adjustable by occupants. The paper concludes that the system tested and described in the paper "will air condition individual people instead of the building" and will "eliminate dissatisfaction with thermal conditions.

127. Lin Y.-J., and P.F. Linden. 2002. "Modeling an underfloor air distribution system." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8-11 September 2002.

128. Livchak, A., and D. Nall. 2001. "Displacement ventilation - Application for hot and humid climate." Proceedings, Clima 2000/Napoli 2001 World Congress, Naples, Italy, 15-18 September 2001.

129. Loftness, V., P. Mathew, G. Gardner, C. Mondor, T. Paul, R. Yates, and M. Dellana. 1999. "Sustainable Development Alternatives for Speculative Office Buildings: A Case Study of the Soffer Tech Office Building. Final Report." Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This 38 page report documents the analysis of sustainable design alternatives for the Tech Office Building. Raised floor for HVAC and networking is included along with 13 other sustainable alternatives such as fašade glazing and shading, roof insulation, lighting, energy recovery, etc.

130. Loftness, V., R. Brahme, M. Mondazzi, E. Vineyard, and M. MacDonald. 2002. "Energy savings potential of flexible and adaptive HVAC distribution systems for office buildings - Final report." Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute 21-CR Research Project 605-30030, June. Full report available at www.arti-21cr.org/research/completed/index.html. This paper documents the performance of recent developments in flexible and adaptive distribution systems in office buildings, and also documents the barriers and opportunities for both industry and professional practice in the development of innovative, flexible and adaptive HVAC distribution systems.

131. Loomans, M.G.L.C., and P.G.S. Rutten, 1997. "Task conditioning + displacement ventilation, 1+1>2? Proceedings, Healthy Buildings/IAQ 1997, Vol. 2. Washington, D.C. Full scale measurements and CFD simulations in an office configuration with desk-based displacement ventilation conclude the micro/macro climate distinction, an underlying principle of TAC systems, is less pronounced than desired and open to improvement.

132. Loomans, M.G.L.C., van Mook, F.J.R. and Rutten, P.G.S. 1996. "The introduction of the desk displacement ventilation concept." Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan.

133. Loudermilk, K., 1999. "Underfloor air distribution solutions for open office applications." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 105, Pt. 1. This paper outlines underfloor air distribution systems' design and operation criteria for optimizing performance and minimizing costs. Includes a useful description of temperature distributions and zone differentiation within a room, and tables for sensible heat gain analysis.

134. Mass, D., 1998. "Underfloor air still an underused tool." Facilities Design and Management, December.

135. Matsunawa, K., H. Iizuka, and S. Tanabe. 1995. "Development and application of an underfloor air conditioning system with improved outlets for a smart building in Tokyo." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 101, Pt. 2.

136. Maybaum, M. 1999. "A breath of fresh air: the air side of HVAC systems offers overlooked opportunities to reduce costs and improve IAQ." Building Operating Management, January. This paper discusses advances on the "air side" of HVAC design, including low temperature air distribution, demand controlled ventilation, filtration choices, sizing for real-world demand, and underfloor air distribution.

137. McCarry, B.T. 1995. "Underfloor air distribution systems: benefits and when to use the system in building design." ASHRAE Transactions, 1995 v. 101, Pt.2. This paper addresses the optimum context and application for underfloor air distribution systems. Illustrated with reference to three buildings in Vancouver, Canada, the discussion addresses design, mechanical systems issues, potential benefits and where the use of an underfloor air system is, or is not, appropriate.

138. McCarry, B.T. 1998. "Innovative underfloor system." ASHRAE Journal, March. Case study of a library building in Vancouver featuring a low-pressure underfloor air distribution system. The financial and operational success of the system exemplifies the potential for underfloor applications outside the genre of office buildings.

139. McQuillen, D. 2001. "3 case studies for improved IAQ." Environmental Design + Construction, posted 1/24/2001, www.edcmag.com.

140. Melikov, A.K., R. Cermak, and M. Majer. 2002. "Personalized ventilation: Evaluation of different air terminal devices." Energy and Buildings, Vol. 34, pp. 829-836.

141. Mundt, E. 1990. "Convection flows above common heat sources in rooms with displacement ventilation. Proceedings, ROOMVENT 1990, Oslo, Norway.

142. Murakami, S., Kato, S., Tanaka, T., Choi, D.-H., Kitazawa, T. 1992. "The influence of supply and exhaust openings on ventilation efficiency in an air-conditioned room with a raised floor." ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2.

143. Muratani, H., 1991. "Office facilities institute, the latest analysis of corporate office environment and personalization." Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol. 65, No. 7 1991.

144. Nagoya University. 1994. Proceedings, International Symposium: "Issues on task-ambient air-conditioning." Nagoya, Japan, January 11.

145. Nailor Industries. 2002. Product information. Nailor Industries, Houston, TX, www.nailor.com.

146. Nakahara, N., and H. Ito. 1993a. "Prediction of mixing energy loss in a simultaneously heated and cooled room: part 1 -- experimental analyses of factorial effects." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Pt. 1, pp. 100-114.

147. Nakahara, N., and H. Ito. 1993b. "Prediction of mixing energy loss in a simultaneously heated and cooled room: part 2 -- simulation analyses on seasonal loss." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Pt. 1, pp. 115-128.

148. Nakamura, Y., Mizuno, M., Sekimoto, Y., Akagi, K., Kunimatu, Y., Otaka, K., Kohyama, M. 1996. "Study on thermal comfort and energy conservation of task-ambient air conditioning system." Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan. A comparative study of three air conditioning systems (conventional, underfloor and task/ambient) including measurements of temperature distributions within the 360░ horizontal plane surrounding an occupant, with floor outlets both on and off.

149. Nakamura, Y., Mizuno, M., Ueno, O., Sekimoto, Y., Akagi, K., Mishima, Okata, K., Kohyama, M. 1998. "Study on thermal comfort conditions of task-ambient air conditioning system." Proceedings, International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '98, Vol. 1, June 6, Stockholm. This study investigated the most suitable floor outlet supply-air conditions in which sedentary occupants are comfortable. Experiments with human subjects, who were able to control their supply air volume and direction, found most subjects directed the supply jet towards their bodies, for cooling within the optimum temperature range, whether the air flow hit them directly or not.

150. Nielsen, P.V. 1996. Displacement Ventilation - Theory and Design. Department of Building Technology and Structural Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

151. NFPA. 1999. NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.

152. Oguro, M., H. Fukao, M. Ichihara, Y. Kobayashi, and N. Maehara. 1995. "Evaluation of a floor-based air-conditioning system performance in an office building." Proceedings, Pan Pacific Symposium on Building and Urban Environmental Conditioning in Asia. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 16-18 March. Comparative field measurements, and a questionnaire on thermal comfort and indoor air quality, for a building with both underfloor- and ceiling-based air conditioning systems conclude little difference in the resulting thermal environments of each, but air particle concentration was significantly less with the underfloor system.

153. Okamoto, A., 1991. "Thermal performance of thermoelectric terminal cooling and heating panel." Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991

154. Paciuk, M. 1989. "The role of personal control of the environment in thermal comfort and satisfaction at the workplace." Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department of Architecture.

155. PECI. 2002. Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. website: www.peci.org. PECI, Portland, OR.

156. Pedersen, C.O., D.E. Fisher, J.D. Spitler, and R.J. Liesen. 1998. Cooling and heating load calculation principles. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

157. Persily, A.K. 1986. "Ventilation effectiveness measurements in an office building." Proceedings of IAQ '86, Managing Indoor Air for Health and Energy Conservation, pp. 548-567. Published by ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA.

158. Persily, A.K. and Dols, W.S. 1989. "Field measurements of ventilation and ventilation effectiveness in an office/library building." Indoor Air 1(3), pp. 229-246.

159. Portland General Electric. 2002. "Earth AdvantageÖ/Building Profile: CNF Information Technology Center." http://www.earthadvantage.com/commercial/projects.asp. Portland General Electric, Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs, Portland, OR.

160. Post, N.M. 1993. "Smart buildings make good sense." Engineering News Record, May 17. This article discusses intelligent buildings, how the building profession regards the technology and what exactly constitutes a 'smart' building. Issues raised are illustrated with reference to buildings featuring intelligent systems and advances made in the field since the '80s.

161. Price Industries. 2002. Product information. Price Industries, Suwanee, GA, www.price-hvac.com.

162. REHVA. 2001. Displacement Ventilation in Non-Industrial Premises (H. Skistad, ed.). Federation of European Heating and Air-Conditioning Associations (REHVA).

163. Rock, B., and D. Zhu. 2001. A Designers Guide to Conventional Ceiling-Based Room Air Diffusion. Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.

164. Rowlinson, D., and D.J. Croome. 1987. "Supply characteristics of floor mounted diffusers." Proceedings ROOMVENT-87, Air Distribution in Ventilated Spaces, Session 1, 10-12 June, Stockholm.

165. Sandberg, M., and C. Blomqvist. 1989. "Displacement ventilation systems in office rooms." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 95, Part 2.

166. Schiller, G., E. Arens, F. Bauman, C. Benton, M. Fountain, and T. Doherty. 1988. "A field study of thermal environments and comfort in office buildings." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 94, Pt. 2.

167. Seem, J.E., and J. Braun. 1992. "The impact of personal environmental control on building energy use." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 98, Pt. 1. This paper compares the energy use characteristics of personal environmental control (PEC) systems and conventional HVAC systems, concluding the benefits of increased staff productivity outweigh costs in other areas.

168. SHASE. 1991. "Special edition: personal air conditioning." SHASE Journal., Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan.

169. Shinkai, K., A. Kasuya, M. Kato. 2000. "Performance Evaluation of Floor Thermal Storage System." ASHRAE Transactions, V. 106, Pt. 1. This paper describes results regarding the peak shaving by a floor thermal storage system in designing the air conditioning system for an officially recognized "environmentally conscious building No. 1" for the Osaka gas company.

170. Shute, R.W. 1992. "Integrated access floor HVAC." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 98, Pt. 1. An overview of the evolution of floor based HVAC, presented as a case study of the six year development period of an office project in Toronto, Canada. Discusses in detail two variations each of compartmentalized and centralized systems, concluding with comprehensive design guidelines and constructional coordination issues based on the experiences of the office project.

171. Shute, R.W. 1995. "Integrated access floor HVAC: Lessons learned." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 101 (Pt. 2).

172. Skistad, H. 1994. Displacement Ventilation. Taunton, Somerset, England: Research Studies Press Ltd.

173. Sodec, F. 1984. Air distribution systems report no. 3554A. Aachen, West Germany: Krantz GmbH & Co., Sept. 19. Comprehensive report from manufacturers of 'environmental technology' products, written in the early days of underfloor air systems. Subjects covered range from characteristics of indoor air flow to admissible sound pressure levels, for example. The information-rich sections include experimental results, technical diagrams and calculations.

174. Sodec, F., and R. Craig. 1990. "The underfloor air supply system -- the European experience." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Part 2.

175. Sodec, F., and R. Craig. 1991. Underfloor air supply system: guidelines for the mechanical engineer. Report No. 3787A. Aachen, West Germany: Krantz GmbH & Co., January. Although covering issues relevant for all designers, the language used, and level of knowledge assumed of the reader, is targeted towards mechanical engineers. Discussion ranges from technical data for twist outlets, to control zones to maintenance of room humidity and underfloor air as a fire or smoke hazard.

176. Spoormaker, H.J. 1990. "Low-pressure underfloor HVAC system." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Part 2. This paper presents a case study of the development and operation of a low-pressure underfloor air conditioning system as installed in a South African office building in the early '80s. Includes useful classifications of levels of flexibility, durability, reliability and maintainability for HVAC systems, and a schematic description of a low-pressure underfloor HVAC system.

177. Stanke, D. and B. Bradley. 2001. "Turning air distribution upside down: underfloor air distribution." TRANE engineers newsletter, Vol. 30, No. 4. An overview for those not familiar with underfloor air, this article touches on floor choices, air distribution options, approaches to design, potential advantages, and "growing pains."

178. Suwa, T., 1991. "Installation example of an underfloor air conditioning system, Toyo-cho building of Meiji Life Insurance Co." Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991 Case study of an underfloor system application featuring custom designed floor outlets, each equipped with a 50W fan unit and control mechanisms (manual and automatic).

179. Svensson, A.G.L. 1989. "Nordic experiences of displacement ventilation systems." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 95, Part 2.

180. Tamblyn, R.T. 1995. "Toward zero complaints for office air conditioning." Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning, March. This article cites 100% outside air systems and personal control of air temperature and motion as two possibilities for reducing occupant dissatisfaction with their office environments, and discusses the means by which both can be operated without undue increase in initial or operating costs. The hypothetical design of an office building with these systems is used to illustrate the report.

181. Tamblyn, R.T. 1995. "Toward zero complaint in air conditioning systems." Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation, and Energy Conservation in Buildings. Centre for Building Studies, Concordia University, Montreal, May 9. A study determining the microclimate conditions, and associated occupant responses, created by a ceiling mounted vertical air jet conditioning system, with occupant controlled thermostat, installed in an office building in New York. The results of this zero-complaint system are useful for concluding the level of individual control offered over temperature and air motion overrides issues of air quality, temperature and system performance in determining levels of occupant satisfaction.

182. Tanabe, S., 1991. "Role of personal air conditioning in office environmental quality." Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991

183. Tanabe, S. 1994. "Thermal comfort aspects of underfloor air distribution system." Proceedings, International Symposium: "Issues on Task-Ambient Air-Conditioning." Nagoya, Japan, January 11.

184. Tanabe, S., E. Arens, F. Bauman, H. Zhang, and T. Madsen. 1994. "Evaluating thermal environments by using a thermal manikin with controlled skin surface temperature." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 100, Pt. 1, 10 pp.

185. Tanabe, S., and K. Kimura. 1996. "Comparisons of ventilation performance and thermal comfort among displacement, underfloor and ceiling based air distribution systems by experiments in a real sized office chamber." ." Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan. Presents the results of comparative measurements, carried out in a test chamber with a thermal manikin, of contaminant concentrations, age of air and thermal comfort resulting from each of the three system types. Includes an analysis of local skin temperatures over various parts of the thermal manikin, highlighting differences in the non-uniform thermal environments created by each air-conditioning system.

186. Tanago, H., and M. Takeda. 1991. "Experimental verification of comfortable personal air conditioning systems." SHASE Journal., Special Edition: Personal Air Conditioning, Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan.

187. Tanago, H., 1991. "Experimental estimation of personal air conditioning system for workers." Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991

188. Tanaka, H. 1991. "Types and features of personal air conditioning." SHASE Journal., Special Edition: Personal Air Conditioning, Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan. Comprehensive description of a range of generic personal air conditioning systems. Written at an early stage in the development of this technology but still useful for the detail and scope of issues addressed.

189. TAK and Takenaka Corporation. 1993. "Design and practice of underfloor air conditioning systems". Tokyo: Gijutsu Shoin (in Japanese).

190. Tate Access Floors, Inc. 2002. "Building Technology Platform« -- Underfloor HVAC, wire and cable management system: Conceptual cost study." Tate Access Floors, Inc., Jessup, MD.

191. Tate Access Floors. 2002. Product information. Tate Access Floors, Jessup, MD, www.tateaccessfloors.com.

192. Terranova, J. 2001. "Underfloor Ventilation: Raised-floor air distribution for office environments." HPAC Engineering, March. This article written for design engineers presents pros and cons of raised-floor systems for office space, a cost analysis, and general design considerations.

193. Trox. 1997. "Building design optimization with underfloor air distribution in the San Francisco area." Trox USA, Alpharetta, GA. One of the most comprehensive collection of papers on underfloor air distribution available. Provides the latest information and guidelines on many aspects including office space optimization, comparisons of overhead and underfloor systems, load analysis, design considerations and a review of competitors' systems. Each topic is illustrated with test results, calculations (e.g. space heat gain), charts (e.g. psychrometric) and a process analysis.

194. Trox. 1998. "Economics of raised access floors with underfloor air for office space environments." Trox Technik Technical Bulletin TB080498, Trox USA, Alpharetta, GA. A recent, comprehensive cost analysis of underfloor versus conventional (poke through and cellular deck) systems covering issues within constructional, operational and relocation costs. Useful data although provided by a party with vested interests.

195. Trox USA. 2002. Product Information. Trox USA, Alpharetta, GA, www.troxusa.com.

196. TRW FAA SETA, 1995. "FAA SETA Raised floor trade study." Draft Prepared for the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), this report compares single-layer and triple-layer raised floor systems to determine the optimum type for FAA facilities. A comprehensive study covering many issues from implications for electrical layouts to lifecycle costing to environmental control, for example. A good source of information on an alternative raised floor configuration about which little is published despite examples of use cited dating from the report ('95) back to 1984.

197. Tsuzuki, K., E.A. Arens, F.S. Bauman, and D.P. Wyon. 1999. "Individual thermal comfort control with desk-mounted and floor-mounted task/ambient conditioning (TAC) systems." Proceedings of Indoor Air '99, Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August. This paper outlines experiments comparing three TAC systems (two desk-based, one floor-based) in terms of their effect on heat loss from a thermal mannequin at various room temperatures. Results indicate such systems are capable of considerably influencing control over the heat balance of an occupant.

198. Tuddenham, D. 1986. "A floor-based approach." ASHRAE Journal, July.

199. Vranicar, M. 2002. Personal communication. Critchfield Mechanical, Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

200. Warson, A. 1990. "The pin-striped office." Canadian Building, March.

201. Webster, T., et al. 1999-2002. "UFAD Project Profiles." http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/underfloorair/whereHasItBeenDone.htm. Underfloor air technology website, Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley.

202. Webster, Tom, E. Ring, and F. Bauman. 2000. "Supply fan energy use in pressurized underfloor plenum systems." Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA. This preliminary study examines the impact of various design assumptions on the fan energy consumption of pressurized underfloor plenum systems, compared to traditional overhead constant-air-volume and variable-air-volume systems.

203. Webster, T., F. Bauman, and J. Reese. 2002-a. "Underfloor air distribution: Thermal stratification." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 44, No. 5, May, pp. 28-36. This article describes the idea of stratification, whose control and optimization is crucial for system design of underfloor systems. This article focuses on practical implications of room air stratification testing results for the control and operation of constant air volume and variable air volume UFAD systems.

204. Webster, T., F. Bauman, J. Reese, and M. Shi. 2002-b. "Thermal stratification performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems." Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, 30 June - 5 July 2002. This paper presents tests to "determine the impact of room airflow and supply air temperature (SAT) on the thermal stratification in interior spaces, and the effect of blinds in perimeter spaces for UFAD systems." Results are outlined and discussed.

205. Webster, T., R. Bannon, and D. Lehrer. 2002-c. "Teledesic Broadband Center." Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA, April.

206. Weiner, P.C. 1994. "Time to look again at desktop control." Architectural Record, May.

207. Wright, G. 1996. "The underfloor air alternative." Building Design and Construction, November.

208. Wyon, D.P. 1988. "Ventilated floor systems with independent room air terminals as the basis of a healthy office environment." Proceedings, CIB Conference on Healthy Buildings '88, 5-8 September, Stockholm.

209. Wyon, D.P. 1989. "The use of thermal manikins in environmental ergonomics. Scand. J. Work, Env. Health, 15 (Supplement), pp. 84-94.

210. Wyon, D.P., and M. Sandberg. 1990. "Thermal manikin prediction of discomfort due to displacement ventilation." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Pt. 1.

211. Wyon, D.P. 1994a. "Thermal gradients, individual differences and air quality." Proceedings, Healthy Buildings '94, Vol. 2, pp. 765-770, Budapest.

212. Wyon, D.P. 1994b. "Current indoor climate problems and their possible solution." Indoor Environment 1994:3:123-129.

213. Wyon, D.P. 1996. "Individual microclimate control: required range, probable benefits and current feasibility." Proceedings, Indoor Air '96, July 21-26, Nagoya, Japan. Based on experimental data, this paper provides new estimates of required temperature ranges of individual control systems necessary to ensure comfort for a given proportion of a group. Includes estimates of the degree to which fan noise could be increased in order to extend the range of individual thermal and air quality control without increasing occupant dissatisfaction; and discussion as to the effects of individual control on group average productivity.

214. Yamanaka, T., R. Satoh, and H. Kotani. 2002. "Vertical distribution of contaminant concentration in rooms with floor-supply displacement ventilation." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8-11 September 2002.

215. Ylvisaker, P. 1990. "Underfloor Air Delivery: An Ergonomic Frontier?" Buildings: The Facilities Construction and Management Magazine, November.

216. Yokoyama, K., and T. Inoue. 1991. "Thermal environment with underfloor air-conditioning system." Proceedings, ASHRAE IAQ '91, Healthy Buildings. Evaluation of a low-pressure underfloor system with fan powered units based on physical testing in a test chamber. Measurements include contaminant concentration during smoking and subjective experiments on occupants.

217. Yokoyama, K., and T. Inoue. 1993. "The application of the underfloor air-conditioning system." Proceedings, Indoor Air '93, Helsinki, Finland. An evaluation of the limitations on, and requirements of, underfloor applications. Considerations include maximum internal heat loads (uniform and non-uniform), raised floor heights, plenum cable capacities, and partition locations.

218. Yokoyama, K., and T. Inoue. 1994. "The evaluation of the newly developed underfloor air-conditioning system." Healthy Buildings '94, Budapest, Hungary. Test-chamber experiments on three HVAC systems (low-pressure underfloor, pressurized underfloor and ceiling supply) compare the vertical distributions of temperature, ventilation efficiency and contaminant removal effectiveness of each. The results of Yokoyama's previous papers are outlined.

219. York, D. 1998. "Commissioning green buildings: Two Wisconsin case studies." Proceedings, 6th National Conference on Building Commissioning, Portland Energy Conservation, Inc.

220. York, T.R. 1993. "Can you afford an intelligent building?" FM Journal, IFMA, September/October. Although cost values will have changed, this article is useful as a comparative exercise aiming to prove intelligent buildings can be built for a cost comparable to traditional buildings. A breakdown of initial building costs, life cycle cost savings and 5-year life cycle costs for four different building types (two traditional, two intelligent, including one with an underfloor air distribution system) is presented.

221. York International. 1999. "York Modular Integrated Terminals: Convection Enhanced Ventilation - Technical Manual." York International, York, PA. This manual provides technical descriptions of the differences between the new technology of floor-based and ceiling-based air distribution systems, in addition to practical guidelines and recommendations for using the MIT's and other York products. The user-friendly graphics and wide range of issues addressed -from psychrometrics to fire codes- make this manufacturer's manual useful as a general reference text for underfloor air systems.

222. York International. 2002. Product information. York International, York, PA, www.york.com.

223. Yuan, X., Q. Chen, and L. Glicksman. 1998. A critical review of displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transactions, 104(1).

224. Yuan, X., Q. Chen, and L. Glicksman. 1999. Performance evaluation and design guidelines for displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transactions, 105(1).

225. Zeng, Q., J. Kaczmarczyk, A.K. Melikov, and P.O. Fanger. 2002. "Perceived air quality and thermal sensation with a personalized ventilation system." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8-11 September 2002.

226. Zhu, J., H. Ito, and N. Nakahara. 1995. "Thermal comfort and energy saving of a personal air-conditioning system using fluctuating air movement." Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation, and Energy Conservation in Buildings. Centre for Building Studies, Concordia University, Montreal, May 9.

227. Zhu, J., Tanaka, K., Sagara, K., Nakahara, N., 1996. "Performance evaluation of a task and ambient air-conditioned system using fluctuating air movement in an actual office space." Proceedings, Indoor Air 1996.

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